VII. Translate the sentences from English into Russian. 1. As to the courts, in cases where the death penalty was the likely sen- tence juries would often acquit a defendant for whom they had some sympa- thy

1. As to the courts, in cases where the death penalty was the likely sen- tence juries would often acquit a defendant for whom they had some sympa- thy, regardless of the strength of the evidence.

2. In the late eighteenth century there was quite literally a prison fleet –

of prison ships known as hulks.

3. Having survived three efforts to hang him, Lee’s sentence was com- muted to life imprisonment.

4. Penal servitude consisted of three stages: separate confinement; associated labour (this took place in three gradually improving stages, with prisoners eventually being taught trades); and release on license.

5. Convicts who would previously have been transported to America were now kept in prison, working at such useless tasks as carrying heavy stones backwards and forwards across the prison yard.

6. In early times a superstitious belief in omens, ghosts, witchcraft and the like was very common.

7. This method of escape from execution became known as benefit of the clergy, and the verse became known as the “neck verse”, because many people – even those who couldn’t read – learned it off by heart and in that way saved their neck.

VIII. Complete the sentences with the words from the box.

1. sought-after; 2. span; 3. executioners; 4. confessed; 5. defence of insanity; 6. convicted; 7. found; 8. hanging; 9. suffered; 10. High treason;

11. drawing; 12. sentenced; 13. transportation for life; 14. quartering;

15. acquit; 16. benefit of the clergy; 17. sentence


1. As for those who or who were

punishment that may be must seem totally barbaric.


guilty, the


2. In medieval England the average life was much lower.

3. Some executioners were given star status, and being an

was a highly occupation.

4. The man was tried and despite his attempted .

5. The English devised the penalty of “, , and ” it was reserved for cases of .

6. He was to death but later the sentence was commuted to

.

7. The method of escape from execution became known as .

8. In cases where the death penalty was the likely juries would often a defendant for whom they had sympathy.

IX. Fill in the gaps with the appropriate prepositions and adverbs from the box.

of(2), at (3), in(4), just, hardly, for(2), actively, to, after, about

1. We find that terrible things are still happening to people convicted

crime – punishments which take us straight backthe Dark Ages.

2. As we look punishments we must appreciate that, a sense, life was much cheaper than it is today.

3. The average life span the medieval England was over 30 years.



4. early times a superstitious belief omens, ghosts, witch- craft and the like was very common.

5. one time the gallows were given the name “Gregorian tree”,

three successive hangmen.

6. If beheadings were bungled, hangings were scientific affairs.

7. This was usually reverse cases of High Treason, although it did not seem difficult imaginative lawyers to find some way to ensure that anyone who offended the monarch might be found guilty this crime.

8. He was eventually hanged at Tyburn the presence of 20,000 spectators.

9. He didn’t campaign, but stirred the public conscience with his writings the cruelties of the day.


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